IFRS 15 and revenue recognition 5-step model
In May 2014, the International Accounting Standards Board (Board) issued a new IFRS® Standard to provide clear principles on when—and how much—revenue should be recognised.
The International Accounting Standards Board (Board) issued Clarifications to IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers in April 2016.
The amendments, which are effective from 1 January 2018, clarify how companies:
- identify a performance obligation—the promise to transfer a good or a service to a customer—in a contract;
- determine whether a company is a principal (the provider of a good or service) or an agent responsible for arranging for the good or service to be provided; and
- determine whether the revenue from granting a licence should be recognised at a point in time or over time.
IFRS 15 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018, with earlier application permitted.
IFRS 15 establishes the principles that an entity applies when reporting information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows from a contract with a customer. Applying IFRS 15, an entity recognises revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.
To recognise revenue under IFRS 15, an entity applies the following five steps:
- identify the contract(s) with a customer.
- identify the performance obligations in the contract. Performance obligations are promises in a contract to transfer to a customer goods or services that are distinct.
- determine the transaction price. The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer. If the consideration promised in a contract includes a variable amount, an entity must estimate the amount of consideration to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods or services to a customer.
- allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation on the basis of the relative stand-alone selling prices of each distinct good or service promised in the contract.
- recognise revenue when a performance obligation is satisfied by transferring a promised good or service to a customer (which is when the customer obtains control of that good or service). A performance obligation may be satisfied at a point in time (typically for promises to transfer goods to a customer) or over time (typically for promises to transfer services to a customer). For a performance obligation satisfied over time, an entity would select an appropriate measure of progress to determine how much revenue should be recognised as the performance obligation is satisfied.